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专家解题:2013年职称英语考试综合类C级阅读理解历年真题及答案解析1

来源:博大考神职称考试网 发布时间:2014-09-01
  考题类型:阅读理解
  An Expensive Mistake
  Is there water on the planet Mars? Is there life on Mars? Was there ever life on Mars? Scientists from NASA wanted to know the answer to these questions. They built a spacecraft to travel around Mars and get information. The spacecraft was called the Mars Climate Orbiter.
  The Mars Climate Orbiter left for Mars in December 1998. The trip took nine a half months. At first, everything was fine. However, when the Orbiter got near Mars something terrible happened. The spacecraft didn't go to the right place. It went too close to Mars. It was too hot for the Orbiter there. The spacecraft couldn't function correctly. Suddenly, it stopped sending messages to NASA. The Orbiter was lost.
  How could this terrible thing happen? How did the Orbiter get closer to Mars than the scientists planned? Finally, they found the answer. Two teams of scientists worked together on the Orbiter. One team was in England, and one team was in the United States. There were many similarities in the way they worked, but there was one important difference: The teams used different guidelines for measuring things. The United States team used the metric system (公制). The other team used the English system.
  Because they used different systems, the scientists made a mathematical mistake. The Orbiter's orbit (the shape and pattern of its path) around Mars was not correct. The scientists put the Orbiter on the wrong path. The Orbiter got too close and too hot, and it stopped functioning.
  Why didn't anybody see the mistake before it was too late? Many things contributed to the problem. One thing was that NASA scientists and mathematicians were working two other spacecrafts at the same time. This was a challenge, and they were very tired from working long hours.
  The Mars Climate Orbiter cost $94 million to build. It also cost a lot of money to try to find the lost Orbiter in space. In addition, NASA's research on the cause of the problem was very expensive. This wasn't the first time that two different measurement systems caused mistakes in scientific projects. However, the Mars Climate Orbiter was definitely the most expensive mistake of all!
  31. NASA built the Mars Climate Orbiter to get information about
  A. possible life on Mars
  B. the size of Mars
  C. the shape of Mars
  D. the atmosphere of Mars
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词:Mars Climate Orbiter.
  第二步:信息词回归原文,信息词出现在第一段最后一句,The spacecraft was called the Mars Climate Orbiter.在前面几句中写道了为什么要造出火星气候探测器。文章开头用了几个问句Is there water on the planet Mars? Is there life on Mars? Was there ever life on Mars? Scientists from NASA wanted to know the answer to these questions.火星上有水吗?火星上有生命吗?或者说火星上曾经有过生命吗?科学家为了知道这些问题的答案(know the answer),所以开始了这个探测计划。
  第三步:对比原文和选项信息,通过原文可以知道,科学家为了知道火星上是否有生命,有水,所以建造了Mars Climate Orbiter。A选项说这个Mars Climate Orbiter被建造出来,是为了探测火星上可能存在的生命迹象,如何原文意思。所以A选项为本题正确答案。
  32. How long did it take the Orbiter to get close to Mars?
  A. one year
  B. less than one year
  C. about two and a half year
  D. more than three years
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词:get close to Mars,注意题干中的How long,问的是多长时间。Orbiter在原文中提到很多次,所以不划为信息词了。
  第二步:信息词回归原文,题目问的是多长时间,那么我们重点查找和时间表达相关的数字信息,定位到第二段第一、二句:The Mars Climate Orbiter left for Mars in December 1998. The trip took nine a half months.
  第三步:对比原文和选项信息,原文中说到了这个探测器从1998年12月出发前往火星,一共花了9个月半的时间(nine a half months)。比较几个选项,A选项说的是一年,B选项说的是不到一年,C选项说的是两年半,D选项说的是三年多。9个月半的时间肯定是不到一年的,所以本题答案为B选项。
  33. When did the Orbiter's problem begin?
  A. right after it left for Mars
  B. right after it landed on Mars
  C. when it got near Mars
  D. when it returned to Earth
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词:problem begin,注意提问中的When,问的是时间,这个探测器何时开始出现问题的?
  第二步:信息词回归原文,定位到第二段第三句:However, when the Orbiter got near Mars something terrible happened. 题干中的problem(问题)和原文中的something terrible(糟糕的事情)为同义改写,这里属于A-B回归。
  第三步:对比原文和选项信息,原文中说当探测器接近火星的时候,糟糕的事情发生了。比较几个选项,C选项when it got near Mar和原文表述一致,选项中的it指代的当然就是the Orbiter了。所以本题答案为C选项。
  34. What caused the Orbiter's problem?
  A. Scientists used wrong guidelines of mathematics
  B. Scientists used wrong building materials
  C. Scientists used different measurement systems
  D. Scientists used different operating systems
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词:caused。注意提问中的what caused,题目问的是这个探测器出现问题的原因是什么?
  第二步:信息词回归原文,第三段第一句提示了我们答案本段How could this terrible thing happen?,这个问题是什么原因导致的呢?接着往下面看,最后三句揭示了答案:The teams used different guidelines for measuring things. The United States team used the metric system (公制). The other team used the English system.
  第三步:对比原文和选项信息,原文说这两队科学家,一队来自英国,一队来自美国,他们使用了不同的测量方案(guidelines for measuring things),所以才导致了这个问题。C选项different measurement systems和原文表述的意思一致,所以本题答案为C选项。
  35. Why didn't NASA scientists identify the problem before the Orbiter left for Mars?
  A. they didn't know the English system
  B. they were tired from working long hours
  C. they were sure of the success of the trip
  D. they didn't get enough research funding
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词:identify the problem。注意题干中的why,问的是原因,为什么科学家们没有在探测器发送到火星之前就看到这个问题呢?
  第二步:信息词回归原文,第五段第一句提示了我们答案就在本段中:Why didn't anybody see the mistake before it was too late? 接着往下面找,最后一句揭示了原因:This was a challenge, and they were very tired from working long hours.
  第三步:对比原文和选项信息,原文说他们超长时间工作,大家都非常疲劳,所以没有检查出这个问题。B选项中tired from working long hours和原文一致,所以本题答案为B选项。
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