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专家解题:2012年职称英语考试综合类A级阅读理解历年真题及答案解析1

来源: 发布时间:2014-09-01
  考题类型:阅读理解       DNA testing    DNA testing reveals thegenes of each individual person. Since the early twentieth century scientistshave known that all human characteristics are contained in a person's genes andare passed from parents to children. Genes work as a chemical instructionmanual for each part and each function of the body. Their basic chemicalelement is called DNA, a copy of which can be found in every cell. Theexistence of genes and the chemical structure of DNA were understood by themid-1900s, but scientists have only recently been able to identify a personfrom just a drop of blood or a single hair.    One of the most importantuses of DNA testing is in criminal investigation. The very first use of DNAtesting in a criminal case was in 1985 inGreat Britain,when a man confessed to killing a young woman in the English countryside.Because police had found samples of the killer’s DNA at the scene of the crime,a biologist suggested that it might be possible to compare that DNA to somefrom the confessor's blood. To everyone's surprise, the tests showed that hewas not the killer. Nor was he guilty of a similar murder that had happenedsome time earlier. At that point he admitted that he had confessed to thecrimes out of fear and police pressure. The police then asked 5,000 local menfor samples of their blood, and DNA testing revealed that one of them was thereal murderer, so the first man was set free.                                                  In 1992, two lawprofessors, Peter Neufeld and Barry Scheck, decided to use DNA evidence to helpset free such mistakenly convicted prisoners. With the help of their students,they created a not-for-profit organization called the Innocence Project. Mostof their clients are poor men, many from racial and ethnic minorities. In fact,studies have shown that U.S.judges and juries are often influenced by racial and ethnic background, andthat people from minority groups are more likely to be convicted. Some of thesemen had been sentenced to death, a form of punishment used in thirty eightstates out of fifty (as of 2006). For most of these prisoners, their only hopewas another trial in which DNA testing could be used to prove their innocence.    Between 1992 and 2006, theInnocence Project helped free 100 men. Some of these prisoners had been in jailfor ten, twenty years or more for crimes they did not commit. However, the goalof the Innocence Project is not simply to set free those who are wrongfully injail. They also hope to bring about real changes in the criminal justicesystem.    Illinoisin the late 1990s, a group of journalism students at Northwestern Universitywere able to bring about such a change in that state. They began investigatingsome Illinoisprisoners who claimed to be innocent. Through DNA testing, the students wereable to prove that in fact the prisoners were not guilty of the crimes they hadbeen accused of. Thirteen of these men were set free, and in 2000, GovernorRyan of Illinoisdecided to stop carrying out death sentences until further study could be madeof the prisoners' cases.    The use of DNA in criminalcases is still being debated around the world. Some fear that governments willone day keep records of everyone's DNA, which could put limits on the privacyand freedom of citizens. Other people mistrust the science of DNA testing andthink that lawyers use it to get their clients free whether or not they areguilty. But for those whose innocence has been proven and who are now free men,DNA testing has meant nothing less than a return to life. And with the carefuluse of DNA testing, no innocent person should ever be convicted again.-31. What is the main idea of this passage?A. DNA testing has changed the American legal system.B. DNA testing has helped innocent men go free in Illinois.C. DNA testing uses genetics to identify a person.D. DNA testing has played a key role in criminal investigation.  专家解题:第一步:本题考查的是文章的主旨大意。其标志为:main idea。第二步:阅读每一段的首尾部分,重点是文章的第一段和最后一段,文章最后两句说:But for those whose innocence has been proven and who are now freeman, DNA testing has meant nothing less than a return to life.  And with the careful use of DNA testing, noinnocent person should ever be convicted again.这说明,本文主要在讲解DNA测试法在当今犯罪侦查中扮演着重要的作用。本题答案为D选项。32. DNA testing was first used in a criminal case byA. a lawyer in New York.B. students in Illinois.C. doctors in the United  States.D. police in Great  Britain.  专家解题:第一步:划出题干的信息词:first,criminal case。第二步:信息词回归原文:the very first use of DNAtesting in a criminal case was in 1985 in Great Britain.…because police had found samples ofthe killer’s DNA …第三步:对比题干选项和原文信息,原文明确给出了第一次被英国的警察使用。GreatBritain和police为关键信息词,D选项表达的意思和原文一致,所以本题的答案选择D选项。33. The Innocence Project uses DNA testing to A. set free innocent prisoner.B. help the police put people in prison.C. find out which lawyer are incompetent.D. prove that suspects are guilty.  专家解题:第一步:划出题干的信息词:The Innocence Project。第二步:信息词回归原文:in 1992, two lawprofessors, decided to use DNA evidence to help set free such mistakenlyconvicted prisoner. They created a organization called the innocence project.第三步:对比题干选项和原文信息,原文说的是set free suchmistakenly convicted prisoner.释放被误判的罪犯。原文当中的mistakenly convicted和A选项中的innocent为同义改写,既然是误判的,那么说这个人就是清白的,是innocent的。尤其可以确定本题答案为A选项。34. Some students in Northwestern UniversityA. proved some prisoners were not guilty.B. believed some suspects were from ethnic groups.C. told the governors of Illinoisnot to free the prisoners.D. showed DNA testing was not always reliable.  专家解题:第一步:划出题干的信息词:Northwestern University。第二步:信息词回归原文:The students (atNorthwestern University)proved that in fact the prisoners were not guilty ofthe crime they had been accused of.  第三步:对比题干选项和原文信息,原文明确说明了proved thatin fact the prisoners were not guilty of the crime,这和选项中A选项基本一样。由此可以确定本题答案为A选项。35. What is the author’s attitude toward DNA testing?A. Negative B. PositiveC. Suspicious D. Indifferent  专家解题:第一步:这这道题问的是作者的态度,从整篇文章来看,本文主要讲了DNA测试在犯罪侦查当中的积极作用,同时也举了例子,比如NorthwesternUniversity的一些学生用DNA测试来证明了一个人的清白。既然是有效,积极的东西,当然是应该要支持的,选项中表示支持、赞成的词为Positive。由此可以确定本题答案为B选项。  为帮助考生用最轻松的方式通过职称英语考试,考职称网官方推荐:博大考神职称英语家庭式培训班,它是在家里上的面授班,通过打造轻松愉快的学习过程,帮助考生掌握职称英语的考试技巧,提供贴心的班主任全程督导服务帮助考生坚持学完所有课程,只要学习达标,即可通过考试,不过退款!(职称英语零基础通关QQ交流群:347526614)2015年如何轻松通过职称英语考试?】  <<<<<职称英语vip保过,不过退款!<>  <<<<<职称英语零基础也不怕?这里保过!<>  <<<<<什么是职称英语?有什么通过秘诀吗?<>  <<<<<职称英语教父幺建华揭秘过关技巧<>   <<<<<在家也可以上职称英语面授班!<>    <<<<<不用背单词也能通过职称英语!<>
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