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专家解题:2013年职称英语考试综合类A级阅读理解历年真题及答案解析2

来源:博大考神职称考试网 发布时间:2014-09-01
  考题类型:阅读理解
  Why So Many Children
  In many of the developing countries in Africa and Asia, the population is growing fast. The reason for this is simple: Women in these countries have a high birth rate---from 3.0 to 7.0 children per woman. The majority of these women are poor, without the food or resources to care for their families. Why do they have so many children? Why don't they limit the size of their families? The answer may be that they often have no choice. There are several reasons for this.
  One reason is economic. In a traditional agricultural economy, large families are helpful. Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age. In an industrial economy, the situation is different. Many children do not help a family;Instead, they are an expense. Thus, industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate. This was the case in Italy, which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly. In the early part of the twentieth century, Italy was a poor, largely agricultural country with a high birth rate. After World War II, Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized. By the end of the century, the birth rate had dropped to 1.3 children per woman, the world's lowest.
  However, the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate. Saudi Arabia, for example, does not have an agriculture-based economy, and it has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Nevertheless, it also has a very high birth rate (7.0). Mexico and Indonesia, on the other hand, are poor countries, with largely agricultural economies, but they have recently reduced their population growth.
  Clearly, other factors are involved. The most important of these is the condition of women. A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women. This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia. There, the traditional culture gives women little education or independence and few possibilities outside the home. On the other hand, the improved condition of women in Mexico, Thailand, and Indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries. Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.
  Another key factor in the birth rate is birth contro1. Women may want to limit their families but have no way to do so. In countries where governments have made birth control easily available and inexpensive, birth rates have gone down. This is the case in Singapore, Sri Lanka, and India, as well as in Indonesia, Thailand, Mexico, and Brazil. In these countries, women have also been provided with health care and help in planning their families.
  These trends show that an effective program to reduce population growth does not have to depend on better economic conditions. It can be effective if it aims to help women and meet their needs. Only then, in fact, does it have any real chance of success.
  36. In a traditional agricultural economy, a large family
  A. can be an advantage.
  B. may limit income.
  C. isn't necessary.
  D. is expensive.
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词:traditional agricultural economy,large family。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,定位到第二段第二、三句:In a traditional agricultural economy, large families are helpful. Having more children means having more workers in the fields and someone to take care of the parents in old age.
  第三步:对比原文和题干信息。题目问的是:在传统的农业经济中, 大的家庭的怎么样?原文说:传统的农业经济中, 家庭成员数目多是十分有利的。孩子多意味着田里的劳动力多且有人给父母养老。注意文中的helpful,表示有帮助的,也就是有利的。比较四个选项,A选项中的be an advantage也表示有利的,是原文的同义改写。所以A选项符合原文意思,所以答案是A。
  37. When countries become industrialized,
  A. families often become larger.
  B. the birth rate generally goes down.
  C. women usually decide not have a family.
  D. the population generally grows rapidly.
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词:countries,industrialized。注意题干中的when,表示“当……的时候”。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,定位到第二段,第二段举了一个意大利的例子,信息词industrialized 的名词形式出现在这一句中:Thus, industrialization has generally brought down the birth rate. This was the case in Italy, which was industrialized quite recently and rapidly….
  第三步:对比题干和原文信息。题目问的是:当国家工业化后, 人口和出生率的状况是什么?原文中说“因此, 工业化极大降低了生育率。这是意大利的一个例子, 意大利最近几年工业化发展十分迅速……”注意原文中的brought down,原形是bring down,意思是“降低”。紧接着就举了意大利这个例子。比较四个选项,B选项的birth rate出现在原文中,同时goes down是原文中brought down的同义改写,表示“出生率降低”。综上分析,B选项和原文表述的意思一致,所以这道题的答案选择B。
  38. Italy today is an example of an
  A. agricultural country with a high birth rate.
  B. agricultural country with a low birth rate.
  C. industrialized country with a low birth rate.
  D. industrialized country with a high birth rate.
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词:Italy,today,example。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,定位到第二段中讲述意大利例子的原文:In the early part of the twentieth century, Italy was a poor, largely agricultural country with a high birth rate. After World War II, Italy's economy was rapidly modernized and industrialized. By the end of the century, the birth rate had dropped to 1.3 children per woman, the world's lowest.
  第三步:对比题干和原文信息,题目问的是:本文举出意大利的例子要说明什么?原文中说:在20世纪前叶, 意大利是个贫穷的农业国家(largely agricultural country), 有着很高的生育率(with a high birth rate)。第二次世界大战之后(After World War II), 意大利的现代化和工业化十分迅速(rapidly modernized and industrialized)。世纪之末其生育率(the birth rate)降到世界最低(the world's lowest), 平均每个女人1.3个孩子。通过意大利在经历工业化前后人口出生率的变化,可以得出一个结论,人口出生率受工业化的影响,也就是:工业化国家的出生率低。第二题也说工业化极大降低了生育率。所以C选项的表述符合原文意思。因此答案是C选项。
  39. Saudi Arabia is mentioned because it shows that
  A. the most important factor influencing birth rate is the economy.
  B. factors other than the economy influence birth rate.
  C. women who have a high income usually have few children.
  D. the birth rate depends on per capita income.
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词:Saudi Arabia,shows。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,定位到第四段的三、四句:A high birth rate almost always goes together with lack of education and low status for women. This would explain the high birth rate of Saudi Arabia.
  第三步:对比题干和原文信息,题目问的是:文中提到沙特阿拉伯的例子说明了什么?由第三段开头可知"However, the economy is not the only important factor that influences birth rate. " 然而经济并不是唯一重要的影响出生率的因素。以沙特阿拉伯为例, 那里并没有以农业为基础的经济, 而且是人均收入最高的国家之一。然而还是有很高的生育率。这个例子是说明经济以外的影响出生率的因素。比较四个选项,B选项说的是影响出生率的其他因素。所以正确答案为B选项。
  40. In Mexico, Thailand, and Indonesia, the government
  A. is not concerned about the status of women.
  B. has tried to industrialize the country rapidly.
  C. does not allow women to work outside the home.
  D. has tried to improve the condition of women.
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词:Mexico, Thailand, and Indonesia,government。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,定位到第四段后半部分:On the other hand, the improved condition of women in Mexico, Thailand, and Indonesia explains the decline in birth rates in these countries. Their governments have taken measures to provide more education and opportunities for women.
  第三步:对比题干和原文信息,题目问的是:墨西哥、泰国、印度尼西亚的政府怎么样或者是说做了什么事情? 原文说:相反, 墨西哥、泰国、印度尼西亚的生育率就低。他们的政府给妇女提供更多的教育和机会。比较四个选项:D选项说提高妇女的境况,和原文表达的意思一致,所以可以确定答案是D选项。另一方面从第四段开头也可以得出结论。"The most important of these is the condition of women. "之后举出这几个国家的例子, 从而也可以得出结论。综上,这道题的答案选择D。
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