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专家解题:2013年职称英语考试理工类C级阅读理解历年真题及答案解析3

来源:博大考神职称考试网 发布时间:2014-08-29
  考题类型:阅读理解
  Energy and Public Lands
  The United States boasts substantial energy resources. Federal lands provide a good deal of US energy production,the US Department of the Interior manages federal energy leasing(租赁)both on land and on the offshore Outer Continental Shelf Production from these sources amounts to nearly 30 percent of total annual US energy production.
  In 2000,32 percent of US oil,35 percent of natural gas,and 37 percent of coal were produced from federal lands,representing 20,000 producing oil and gas leases and 135 producing coal leases. Federal lands are also estimated to contain approximately 68 percent of all undiscovered US oil reserves and 74 percent of undiscovered natural gas.
  Revenues from federal oil,gas,and coal leasing provide significant returns to US taxpayers as well as State Government. In 1999,for example,$553 million in oil and gas revenues were paid to the US Treasury,and non-India coal leases accounted for over $304 million in revenues,of which 50 percent were paid to State governments. Public lands also play a critical role in energy delivery. Each year,federal land managers authorize rights of way for transmission lines,rail systems,pipelines,and other facilities related to energy production and use.
  Alternative energy production from federal lands falls behind conventional energy production,though the amount is still significant. For example,federal geothermal(地热)resources produce about 7.5 billion kilowatt-hours(千瓦时)of electricity per year,47 percent of all electricity generated from US geothermal energy. There are 2,960 wind turbines on public lands in California alone,producing electricity for about 300,000 people. Federal hydropower facilities produce about 17 percent of all hydropower produced in the United States.
  Because of the growing US thirst for energy and increasing public unease with influence on foreign off sources,pressure on public lands to meet US energy demand is becoming more intense. Public lands are available for energy development only after they have been evaluated through the land use planning process. If development of energy resources conflicts with management or use of other resources,development restrictions or impact moderation measures may be enforced,or mineral be banned altogether.
  41. What is the main idea of this passage?
  A. Public lands are one of the main sources of revenues.
  B. Public lands play an important role in energy production.
  C. Public lands should be developed to ease energy shortage.
  D. Public lands store huge energy resources for further development.
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题问的是文章主旨(main idea),根据标题来看,讲的是energy和public lands,所以,首先排除A选项,因为没有涉及energy,所以排除掉;
  第二步:剩下的三个选项中,分别涉及到了energy shortage,energy production,store energy。因为题目问的是文章主旨,所以看文章的首段、尾端以及每段的中心句。文章首段反复提到了energy production,尾端也提到过production,并且其他段落中也曾反复提到energy production;对比可以看出其他两个energy shortage和store energy的出现率比较低,由此可见,本题的答案为选项B。
  42. Which of the following statements is true of public lands in the U.S.?
  A. Half of US energy is produced there.
  B. The majority of undiscovered natural gas is stored there.
  C. Most of coal was produced from there in 2000.
  D. Most energy resources are reserved there.
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:true,public lands in the U.S.。本题是一个which题,问的是关于US的public lands下列哪个是正确的(true)?
  第二步: 信息词不好回归,只能根据顺序出题原则和选项来进行对比判断,重点看第一段之后的内容。
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。选项A说的是一半的(half)的US energy产自那里(there,指代的public lands);原文说的是32%的US Oil,35%的natural gas和37%的coal产自federal lands(和public lands指的都是国家公家的土地,意思一致);没有达到一半,也就是错误,排除掉。选项C说2000年的大部分coal都产自那里,回归原文后,每年提到2000年的coal的内容,所以排除掉。选项D说大部分energy resources都储备(reserved)在那里,原文说的是预计(estimated) federal lands含有大概68%的未发现的(undiscovered)US oil储备和74%的未发现的natural gas,两者意思不一致,故排除掉,而B选项说的是大部分未开发的natural gas都储藏在那里,和原文意思一致,所以本题的答案为选项B。
  43. Geothermal resources, wind turbines, and hydropower facilities in Paragraph 4 are cited as examples to illustrate that
  A. alternative energy production is no less than conventional energy production.
  B. they are the most typical conventional energy resources from public lands.
  C. the amount of alternative energy production from public lands is huge.
  D. geothermal resources are more important than the other two.
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:Geothermal resources,wind turbines,hydropower facilities,Paragraph 4。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的第四段。
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干问的是第四段提到Geothermal resources,wind turbines,hydropower facilities是为了描述(illustrate)什么。选项A说的是alternative energy production 不比conventional energy production的少(no less than),而原文说的是Alternative energy production落后于(falls behind)conventional energy production,两者意思不一致,故排除掉;选项B说的是他们(they,指代题干中的Geothermal resources,wind turbines,hydropower facilities)是最典型的(most typical)conventional energy resources,原文说的是他们是alternative energy,可见描述相反,故排除掉;选项D说的是geothermal resources比起(than)两外两种(other two)更重要(more important),原文没有进行比较,故排除掉;选项C说alternative energy production在public lands里的量(amount)很大(huge),原文通过一系列数据,比如:7.5 billion kilowatt-hours(千瓦时),47 percent,2,960 wind turbines,300,000 people等来证明,可见两者意思表达一致,所以本题的答案为选项C。
  44. There is a mounting pressure on public lands to satisfy US energy demands because
  A. many Americans are unhappy with energy development in foreign countries.
  B. quite a few public lands are banned for energy development.
  C. many Americans think public lands are being abused.
  D. the U.S. is demanding more and more energy.
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:mounting pressure,satisfy,US energy demands,because。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的最后一段第一句,即:Because of the growing US thirst for energy and increasing public unease with influence on foreign off sources,pressure on public lands to meet US energy demand is becoming more intense.
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干问的是public lands满足(satisfy)US energy demands的压力越来越大(mounting pressure)是因为(because)什么。原文中出现了和because 对应的because of,可见答案就是because of后面的内容,也就是growing US thirst for energy (对能源的渴求上涨)以及increasing public unease with influence on foreign off sources(海外影响导致民众恐慌增长)。选项中D选项说的是US对energy的需求越来越多,和原文意思一致,所以本题的答案为选项D。
  45. Public lands can be used for energy development when
  A. they go through the land use planning process.
  B. energy development restrictions are effective.
  C. federal land managers grant permissions.
  D. there is enough federal budget.
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:energy development,when。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的最后一段后半部分,即:Public lands are available for energy development only after they have been evaluated through the land use planning process. If development of energy resources conflicts with management or use of other resources,development restrictions or impact moderation measures may be enforced,or mineral be banned altogether.
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干问的是什么时候(when)public lands可以用来energy development。原文出现了和when对应的单词only after(只有……之后的意思),可见答案就是后面的内容,也就是evaluated through the land use planning process,即选项A的内容,所以本题的答案为选项A。

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