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专家解题:2013年职称英语考试理工类C级阅读理解历年真题及答案解析1

来源:博大考神职称考试网 发布时间:2014-08-29
  考题类型:阅读理解
  When Our Eyes Serve Our Stomach
  Our senses aren't just delivering a strict view of what's going on in the world; they're affected by what's going on in our heads. A new study finds that hungry people see food-related words more clearly than people who've just eaten.
  Psychologists have known for decades that what's going on inside our head affects our senses. For example, poorer children think coins are larger than they are, and hungry people think pictures of food are brighter.Remi Radel of University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, France, wanted to investigate how this happens. Does it happen right away as the brain receives signals from the eyes or a little later as the brain's high-level thinking processes get involved?
  Radel recruited 42 students with a normal body mass index. On the day of his or her test, each student was told to arrive at the lab at noon after three or four hours of not eating. Then they were told there was a delay. Some were told to come back in 10 minutes; others were given an hour to get lunch first. So half the students were hungry when they did the experiment and the other half had just eaten.
  For the experiment, the participant looked at a computer screen. One by one, 80 words flashed on the screen for about 1/300th of a second each. They flashed at so small a size that the students could only consciously perceive. A quarter of the words were food-related. After each word, each person was asked how bright the word was and asked to choose which of two words they'd seen—a food-related word like cake or a neutral word like boat. Each word appeared too briefly for the participant to really read it.
  Hungry people saw the food-related words as brighter and were better at identifying food-related words. Because the word appeared too quickly for them to be reliably seen, this means that the difference is in perception, not in thinking processes, Radel says.
  "This is something great to me. Humans Can really perceive what they need or what they strive for. From the experiment, I know that our brain can really be at the disposal of 6 our motives and needs," Radel says.
  31. "Poorer children" and "hungry people" are mentioned in Paragraph 2 to show
  A. they have sharper senses than others.
  B. they lose their senses because of poverty and hunger.
  C. humans' senses are affected by what they see with their eyes.
  D. humans' senses are influenced by what's going on in their heads.
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:"Poorer children" ,"hungry people" ,Paragraph 2。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的第二段前半部分,即:Psychologists have known for decades that what's going on inside our head affects our senses. For example, poorer children think coins are larger than they are, and hungry people think pictures of food are brighter
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干问的是第二段提到"Poorer children" 和"hungry people"是为了表明什么。原文说的心理学家知道what's going on inside our head(我们头脑里的东西)会影响(affect)我们的senses(感觉),然后举出了"Poorer children" 和"hungry people"的例子,故表明的其实就是选项D的内容:人的感觉(humans' senses)受what's going on in their heads(头脑里的东西) 影响(influenced)。所以本题的答案为选项D。
  32. There was a delay in Radel's experiment because
  A. he needed more students to join.
  B. he didn't prepare enough food for the 42 students.
  C. he wanted two groups of participants, hungry and non-hungry.
  D. he didn't want to have the experiment at noon.
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:delay,Radel's experiment,because。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的第三段。
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干问的是Radel's experiment有delay是因为什么。原文第三段说Radel为了保证42名学生到达实验室时是空腹,所以要求他们中午到达。然后告诉一部分学生实验时间推迟了,请他们10分钟后再来。他又请另外一部分学生用午餐。Radel用推迟实验的方法造就了两组实验者,即饥饿组与饱食组。即选项C的内容,他想要两组实验者(two groups of participants),饥饿组(hungry)与饱食组(non-hungry)。所以本题的答案为选项C。
  33. Why did the 80 words flash so fast and at so small a size on the screen?
  A. To make sure the participant had no time to think consciously.
  B. To ensure the participant was unable to perceive anything.
  C. To guarantee each word came out at the same speed and size.
  D. To shorten the time of the experiment.
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:Why,80 words,so fast,so small,screen。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的第四段。
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干问的是为什么屏幕上的80个字闪过的又小又快?第四段第二三句说One by one, 80 words flashed on the screen for about 1/300th of a second each. They flashed at so small a size that the students could only consciously perceive.屏幕上的80个字以1/300秒的频率闪动。由于字体非常之小,被试者只能凭感觉捕捉到字形,也就是选项A说的确保(make sure)participants没时间(had no time)思考(think consciously),两者意思一致,所以本题的答案为选项A。
  34. Radel's experiment discovered that hungry people
  A. were better at identifying neutral words.
  B. were always thinking of food-related words.
  C. saw every word more clearly than stomach-full people.
  D. were more sensitive to food-related words than stomach-full people.
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:Radel's experiment,discovered,hungry people。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的第五段,即:Hungry people saw the food-related words as brighter and were better at identifying food-related words. Because the word appeared too quickly for them to be reliably seen, this means that the difference is in perception, not in thinking processes, Radel says.
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干问的是Radel's experiment发现(discovered)hungry people怎么样。原文说的是Hungry people看到的食物相关单词更明亮(brighter)而且能更好的识别(identifying)这些食物相关单词,也就是说他们对于食物相关单词更敏感(more sensitive),即选项D的内容,所以本题的答案为选项D。
  35. It can be learnt from what Radel says that
  A. humans' thinking processes are independent of their senses.
  B. humans can perceive what they need without deep thinking processes.
  C. an experiment with hungry and non-hungry participants is not reliable.
  D. 42 participants are too small a number for a serious investigation.
  专家解析:
  第一步:本题问的是从Radel的话中可以得出什么内容。
  第二步:根据对原文的理解,分析四个选项,A选项说选项说我们的思维活动过程和我们的感官知觉是分离的(independent),文章没有讨论这方面的问题。B选项说人类在没有进行高水平思维活动时也可以感知到自身的需要。这在最后一段第二句中可以得到体现:Humans Can really perceive what they need or what they strive for. 意思是人类可以真正感知到自身的需要或者为之奋斗的目标。都出现了perceive what they need。C选项说一个实验中有饥饿的人(hungry)和饱食的人(non-hungry)是不可靠的(not reliable),这个信息无法中原文中推断出来。原文中只说到了为了达到实验效果,故意在实验当天设计了一个延迟(delay)来造就两个组。D选项说对于一个严肃的调查来说,42个人的实验样本(42 participants)太小了(too small),原文没有说实验人数样本是否太小之类的信息。所以本题的答案为选项B。
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