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专家解题:2013年职称英语考试综合类C级阅读判断历年真题及答案解析

来源:博大考神职称考试网 发布时间:2014-09-01
  考题类型:阅读判断
  Kicking the Habit
  What is a bad habit? The most definition is that it is something that we do regularly, almost without thinking about it, and which has some sort of negative consequence. This consequence could affect those around us, or it could affect us personally. Those who deny having bad habits are probably lying. Bad habits are part of what makes us human.
  Many early habits, like sucking out thumb, are broken when we are very young. We are either told to stop doing it by our parents, or we consciously or subconsciously observe that others do not have the same habit, and we gradually grow out of it. It is when we intentionally or unintentionally pick up new habits in our later childhood or early adulthood that it becomes a problem. Unless we can break that habit early on, it becomes a part of our life, and becomes "programmed" into our brain.
  A recent study of human memory suggests that no matter how hard we try to change out habits, it is the old ways that tend to win, especially in situations where we are rushed, stressed or overworked. Habits that we thought we had got rid of can suddenly come back. During the study programme, the researchers showed a group of volunteers several pictures, and gave them words to associate with them. They then showed the volunteers the same picture again, and gave them new words to associate with them.
  A few days later, the volunteers were given a test. The researchers showed them the pictures, and told them to respond with one of the words they had been given for each one. It came as no surprise that their answers were split between the first set of words and second. Two weeks later, they were given the same test again. This time, most of them only gave the first set of words. They appeared to have completely forgotten the second set.
  The study confirms that the responses we learn first are those that remain strongest over time. We may try to change out ways, but after a while, the response that comes to mind first is usually the first one we learned. The more that response is used, the more automatic it becomes and the harder it becomes to respond in any other way.
  The study therefore suggests that over time, our bad habits also become automatic, learned behavior. This is not good news for people who pick up bad habits early in life and now want to change or break them. Even when we try to put new, good intentions into practice, those previous learned habits remain stronger in more automatic, unconscious forms of memory.
  16. Boys usually develop bad habits when they are very young.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词:Boys,very young。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,本题的信息词回归原文以后,会发现没有对应的原文信息。虽然very young出现了,但是并没有出现boys,没有提到在坏习惯方面,男孩或者女孩有什么特别的地方,基本上可以判断为未提及了。那么,当阅读判断的第一个题目在原文当中找不到合适的信息词的时候,我们查找的范围仅仅局限于前面三段,或者两段。如果在这两三段范围内都找不到的话,先标上一个C,也就是先判断为未提及。等其他题目做完以后,再回过头来所属知识点:
  所属题型:阅读判断核实这个题目中我们的选择是否正确。
  17. We can only break bad habits if others tell us to do.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词break bad habits,注意题干当中的only一词。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,break的过去分词形式broken出现在第二段,可以定位到第二段的前面几句:Many early habits, are broken when  …We are either told to stop doing it by our parents, or we consciously or subconsciously observe that others do not have the same habit, and we gradually grow out of it.
  第三步:对比题干和原文信息,原文中说的是我们改掉一些习惯(grow out of it)有可能是我们的父母督促的,也有可能是有意识的或者是无意识中改掉的,还有可能是看到别人没有那么做,就改掉了的。而题干说的是,只有别人告诉我们这么做的时候,我们才能改掉坏习惯。显然题干和原文是不对应的,所以可以判断为错误。注意:当题干中出现only这个词的时候,题目基本可以判断为错误。
  18. Bad habits may return when we are under pressure.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词:return,under pressure。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,return的同义改写形式come back出现在这句当中: Habits that we thought we had got rid of can suddenly come back.在这句附近寻找答案出处,定位到前面这一句:A recent study of human memory suggests that no matter how hard we try to change out habits, it is the old ways that tend to win, especially in situations where we are rushed, stressed or overworked.
  第三步:对比题干和原文信息,原文中说到了,当我们急躁的时候(rushed),有压力的时候(stressed),或者超负荷工作的时候(overworked),我们以为曾经已经改掉的坏习惯可能又会回来(come back)。原文当中的有压力的时候(stressed)和题目当中的under pressure为同义改写,所以,我们可以判断这道题的答案为正确。
  19. Researchers were surprised by the answer that the volunteers gave in the first test.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
  家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词:Researchers,answer,volunteers,first test。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,定位到第四段的这句It came as no surprise that their answers were split between the first set of words and second. answer和first在这里是直接复现的。
  第三步:对比题干和原文信息,原文中说的是no surprise,而题目里面说的是surprised,直接去掉了这个否定词no。给大家总结过一些常见的否定词,比如not,no,rarely,hardly等。所以这里就可以很简单的判断出本题答案选择B选项了。
  20. The volunteers found the test more difficult when they did it the second time.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词:more difficult,second time。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,在原文中找不到相关信息。这里题目当中虽然只出现了the second time,但是暗含了一个the first time,有第二次肯定就有第一次。那么这两次测试是属于不同的对象,不同对象之间的比较,通常可以判断为未提及。同时,more difficult在原文里面也确实找不到,所以可以判断答案为C选项了。
  21. The study suggests that it is more difficult to respond what to get rid of.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词suggests,more difficult,respond,get rid of
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,定位到倒数第二段最后一句The more that response is used, the more automatic it becomes and the harder it becomes to respond in any other way.和最后一段这句:The study therefore suggests that over time, our bad habits also become automatic, learned behavior.
  第三步:对比题干和原文信息,这里题目说的是已经改掉的习惯很难做出反应,原文说的是我们习惯了对坏习惯做出反应,就会越来越强化这个习惯,所以题目与原文表达的意思是相反的。本题答案为B选项。
  22. If we develop bad habits early in life, they are harder to get rid of.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
  专家解题:
  第一步:划出题干的信息词:develop,early in life,harder。
  第二步:根据信息词回归原文,early in life在原文中有直接复现,get rid of在原文中有同义复现:break,可以定位到最后一段这句:This is not good news for people who pick up bad habits early in life and now want to change or break them.
  第三步:对比题干和原文信息,题目说,我们形成习惯越早,就越难改掉,这和原文表达的意思是一致的,原文中说了This is not good news(这对他们来说不是一个好消息)。所以本题答案为A选项。
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