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专家解题:2013年职称英语考试理工类A级阅读判断历年真题及答案解析

来源:博大考神职称考试网 发布时间:2014-08-28
  考题类型:阅读判断
  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断;如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。
  New Understanding of Natural Silk's Mysteries
  Natural silk, as we all know, has a strength that manmade materials have long struggled to match. In a discovery that sounds more like an ancient Chinese proverb than a materials science breakthrough, MIT researchers have discovered that silk gets its strength from its weakness. Or, more specifically, its many weaknesses. Silk gets its extraordinary durability and ductility from an unusual arrangement of hydrogen bonds that are inherently very weak but that work together to create a strong, flexible structure.
  Most materials -- especially the ones we engineer for strength -- get their toughness from brittleness. As such, natural silks like those produced by spiders have long fascinated both biologists and engineers because of their light weight, ductility and high strength (pound for pound, silk is stronger than steel and far less brittle). But on its face, it doesn't seem that silks should be as strong as they are; molecularly, they are held together by hydrogen bonds, which are far weaker than the covalent bonds found in other molecules.
  To get a better understanding of how silk manages to produce such strength through such weak bonds, the MIT team created a set of computer models that allowed them to observe the way silk behaves at the atomic level. They found that the arrangement of the tiny silk nanocrystals is such that the hydrogen bonds are able to work cooperatively, reinforcing one another against external forces and failing slowly when they do fail, so as not so allow a sudden fracture to spread across a silk structure.
  The result is natural silks that can stretch and bend while retaining a high degree of strength. But while that's all well and good for spiders, bees and the like, this understanding of silk geometry could lead to new materials that are stronger and more ductile than those we can currently manufacture. Our best and strongest materials are generally expensive and difficult to produce (requiring high temperature treatments or energy-intensive processes).
  By looking to silk as a model, researchers could potentially devise new manufacturing methods that rely on inexpensive materials and weak bonds to create less rigid, more forgiving materials that are nonetheless stronger than anything currently on offer. And if you thought you were going to get out of this materials science story without hearing about carbon nanotubes, think again. The MIT team is already in the lab looking into ways of synthesizing silk-like structures out of materials that are stronger than natural silk -- like carbon nanotubes. Super-silks are on the horizon.
  16. MIT researchers carry out the study to illustrate an ancient Chinese proverb.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
  专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:MIT researchers,illustrate,ancient Chinese proverb。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的第一段中间部分,即:In a discovery that sounds more like an ancient Chinese proverb than a materials science breakthrough, MIT researchers have discovered that silk gets its strength from its weakness. Or, more specifically, its many weaknesses.
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干说的在MIT researchers开展研究(carry out the study)是为了描述(illustrate)ancient Chinese proverb。原文说的是在MIT researchers的发现(discovery)更像ancient Chinese proverb而不像materials science breakthrough。由此可见,两者意思不一致,所以答案为错误选项B。
  17. Silk's strength comes from its weak hydrogen bonds working together.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
   专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:Silk's strength,weak hydrogen bonds,working together。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的第一段后半部分,即:MIT researchers have discovered that silk gets its strength from its weakness. Or, more specifically, its many weaknesses. Silk gets its extraordinary durability and ductility from an unusual arrangement of hydrogen bonds that are inherently very weak but that work together to create a strong, flexible structure.
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干说的是Silk's的strength来自于(comes from)weak hydrogen bonds的共同作用(working together)。原文说的是silk通过它的weakness获得(get)strength,然后后面也紧接着提到了work together,故两者意思一致,所以答案为正确选项A。
  18. Biologist and engineer are interested in understanding natural silks because they are very light and brittle.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
   专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:Biologist,engineer,interested,natural silk,because,light and brittle。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的第二段第二句,即:As such, natural silks like those produced by spiders have long fascinated both biologists and engineers because of their light weight, ductility and high strength (pound for pound, silk is stronger than steel and far less brittle).
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干说的是Biologist和engineer对natural silk感兴趣(interested)因为(because)light(轻)和 brittle(易脆性)。原文说的是因为(because of)重量轻(light weight),柔韧性(ductility)和高强度(high strength)。可见题干中的易脆性是错误的,两者意思不一致,所以答案为错误选项B。
  19. If the hydrogen bonds break due to external forces, they breakfast.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
   专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:hydrogen bonds,due to,external forces,break fast。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的第三段后半部分,即:They found that the arrangement of the tiny silk nanocrystals is such that the hydrogen bonds are able to work cooperatively, reinforcing one another against external forces and failing slowly when they do fail, so as not so allow a sudden fracture to spread across a silk structure.
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干说的是如果external forces导致(due to)hydrogen bonds破裂(break),那么破裂的很快(fast)。原文说的是hydrogen bonds相互作用(work cooperatively, reinforcing one another)抵御(against)external forces,当破裂(fail)的时候速度很慢(slowly)。可见两者意思相反,所以答案为错误选项B。
  20. The MIT team had tried different materials before they studied natural silk in their research.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
   专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:MIT team,different materials,before。
  第二步:根据顺序出题原则,将信息词回归原文。发现回归后找不到题干表述的内容,没有出现和different materials相关的内容,也没有出现时间上的比较,比如before。由此可见,本题属于未提及选项C。
  21. Carbon nanotubes are currently the most popular topic in material science.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
   专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:Carbon nanotubes,currently,most popular topic,material science。
  第二步:将信息词回归原文。本题回归原文后没有发现关于Carbon nanotubes是现今(currently)最受欢迎的话题(most popular topic)的描述,由此可见,本题属于未提及选项C。
  22. It is indicated that materials stronger than natural silk can be expected in the future.
  A. Right
  B. Wrong
  C. Not mentioned
   专家解析:
  第一步:划出题干中的信息词。本题目信息词有:materials stronger than natural silk,expected,future。
  第二步:根据顺序出题原则,将信息词回归原文。本题回归至原文的最后一段的后半部分,即:The MIT team is already in the lab looking into ways of synthesizing silk-like structures out of materials that are stronger than natural silk -- like carbon nanotubes. Super-silks are on the horizon.
  第三步:对比原文及题目信息,确定答案。题干说的是materials stronger than natural silk在未来能实现(expected in the future),原文说的是Super-silks(指代的就是前面出现的materials stronger than natural silk)很快就会出现了(on the horizon),两者意思一致,所以答案为正确选项A。
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